With over 1.38 billion people, China is the most populous country in the world and the fourth-largest country by area. From a fish and seafood perspective, China is unique as it is the world’s leader in marine and inland fisheries as well as aquaculture production. The country’s seafood production is supported by 14,500 km of coastline bordered by the Yellow Sea and the Korea Bay in the north, the East China Sea in the center and the South China Sea and the Gulf of Tonkin to the south. In terms of fresh water, China is home to 196,000 km2 of inland waters and reservoirs, and 74,550 km2 of river area including the Yellow and Yangtze rivers. Despite this wealth of natural resources, domestic production is insufficient to meet China’s growing demand for fish and seafood from the growing number of middle-class households. As a result, China has become, as of 2014, a net importer of fish and seafood rather than being a net exporter. Part of the imports are processed and re-exported but an increasing share of the imports are sold to domestic markets. In an effort to meet demand, China has developed the largest distant water fishing fleet in the world and therewith goes beyond the traditional trade networks of solely import and export. To support these expanded networks, China has instituted a trade policy known as the Maritime Silk Road, which is a trade route by sea to match the ancient Silk Road trade route by land. The trade route seeks to encourage trade links between China and overseas partners for fish and seafood products.